# Tamil units of measurement

•  SOURCE : wikipedia

Measurements in ancient Tamil land were of seven kinds. They were number counts, balance weights, fluid volumes, grain volumes, length, time and the likeness.

Units of time in ancient Tamil history

• 1 kuzhi(kuRRuzhi)= 6.66 millisecond-the time taken by the Pleiades stars(aRumin) to glitter once.
• 12(base 8 ) or 10 kuzhigaL= 1 miy= 66.6666 millisecond-the time taken by the young human eyes to flap once.
• 2 kaNNimaigaL= 1 kainodi= 0.125 second
• 2 kainodi= 1 maatthirai= 0.25 second
• 6(base 8 ) or 6 miygaL= 1 siRRuzhi(nodi)= 0.40 second-the time taken for a bubble (created by blowing air through a bamboo tube into a vessel 1 saaN high, full of water) to travel a distance of one saaN .
• 2 maatthiraigaL= 1 kuru= 0.50 second
• 2(base 8 ) or 2 nodigaL= 1 vinaadi= 0.80 second-the time for the adult human heart to beat once
• 212 nodigaL= 2 kuru= 1 uyir= 1 second
• 5 nodigaL= 2 uyir= 1 saNigam= 1/2 aNu= 2 seconds
• 12(base 8 ) or 10 nodigaL= 1 aNu= 4 seconds
• 6(base 8 ) or 6 aNukkaL= 12 saNigam= 1 thuLi= 1 naazhigai-vinaadi= 24 seconds
• 12(base 8 ) or 10 thuLigaL= 1 kaNam= 4 minutes
• 6(base 8 ) or 6 kaNangaL= 1 naazhigai= 24 minutes
• 12(base 8 ) or 10 naazhigaigaL= 4 saamam= 1 siRupozhuthu= 240 minutes= 4 hours
• 6(base 8 ) or 6 siRu-pozhuthugaL= 1 naaL(1 day)= 24 hours
• 7 naaTkaL= 1 kizhamai(1 week)
• 15 naaTkaL= 1 azhuvam(1 fortnight )
• 29.5 naaTkaL= 1 thingaL(1 lunar month)
• 2 thingaL= 1 perum-pozhuthu(1 season)
• 6 perum-pozhuthugaL= 1 AaNdu(1 year)
• 64 aaNdugaL= 1 vattam(1 cycle)
• 4096(=8^4) AaNdugaL= 1 Oozhi(1 epoch)

## Area Measurement

• 1 Marakkal vaedaipadu (seeds required for planting rice) = 8 cents
• 12.5 Marakkal vaedaipadu = 100 cents (one acre)

Area calculation and Measurement Chart .

• 1 hectare = 2 acre 47 cent
• 1 hectare = 10,000 sq.m.
• 1 acre = 0.405 hectare
• 1 acre = 4046.82 sq.m.
• 1 acre = 43,560 sq.ft.
• 1 acre = 100 cent = 4840 sq.gejam
• 1 cent = 435.6 sq.ft.
• 1 cent = 40.5 sq.m
• 1 ground = 222.96 sq.m. = 5.5 cent
• 1 ground = 2400 sq.ft.
• 1 kuli = 44 cent
• 1 kaani = 132 cent = 3 kuli
• 1 kaani = 1.32 acre
• 1 kaani = 57,499 sq.ft.
• 1 acre = 2.25 kuli
• 1 dismil = 1.5 cent
• 1 furlong = 660 feet = 220 kejam
• 1 kilometre = 5 furlong
• 1 link / chain = 0.66 foot = 7.92 inch
• 1 kejam = 3 feet
• 1 mile = 8 furlong
• 1 ares = 1076 sq.ft. = 2.47 cent
• 1 chain = 22 kejam
• 1 furlong = 10 chain
• 1 kejam = 0.9144 metre
• 1 township = 36 sq.mile
• 1 sq.mile = 640 acre

## Units of ancient trade

### Balance weights

#### GOLD WEIGHTS

• 4 nel edai= 1 kunRimaNi
• 2 kunRimaNi= 1 manjaadi
• 1 manjaadi= 1 paNavedai
• 5 paNavedai= 1 kazhanju
• 8 paNavedai= 1 varaaganedai
• 20 paNavedai= 4 kazhanju = 1 kaqhsu
• 80 paNavedai= 16 kazhanju= 4 kaqhsu= 1 palam.
• 1.5 Kazhanji = 8 gram or one pown

#### GOODS WEIGHTS

• 32 kunRimaNi= 1 varaaganedai
• 10 varaaganedai= 1 palam
• 40 palam= 1 veesai
• 1000 palam =1 kaa
• 6 veesai= 1 thulaam
• 8 veesai= 1 maNangu
• 20 maNangu= 1 paaram.

### Grain volume

• 1 kuNam= smallest unit of volume
• 9 kuNam= 1 mummi
• 11 mummi= 1 aNu
• 7 aNu=1 immi
• 7 immi= 1 uminel
• 1 sittigai= 7 uminel
• 360 nel= 1 sevidu
• 5 sevidu= 1 aazhaakku
• 2 aazhaakku= 1 uzhakku
• 2 uzhakku= 1 uri
• 2 uri= 1 padi
• 8 padi= 1 marakkaal(kuRuNi)
• 2 marakkaal(kuRuNi)= 1 padhakku
• 2 padhakku= 1 thooNi
• 5 marakkaal= 1 paRai
• 80 paRai= 1 karisai
• 96 padi= 1 kalam
• 120 padi= 1 pothi(mootai)
• 21 marakkal = 1 Kottai

padi, = 1800 avarai pods = 12,800 miLagu seeds = 14,400 nel grains = 14,800 payaRu grains = 38,000 arisi grains = 115,200 sesame seeds

### Fluid volume

• 5 sevidu= 1 aazhaakku
• 2 mahani = 1 aazhakku (arai kal padi)
• 2 aazhaakku= 1 uzhakku (Kal padi)
• 2 uzhakku= 1 uri (Arai padi)
• 2 uri= 1 padi
• 8 padi= 1 marakkaal
• 2 marakkaal(kuRuNi)= 1 padhakku
• 2 padhakku= 1 thooNi
• 21 Marakkal = 1 Kottai

### Length

• 10 koaN= 1 nuNNaNu
• 10 nuNNaNU= 1 aNu(atom)
• 8 aNu= 1 kathirtthugaL
• 8 kathirtthugaL= 1 thusumbu
• 8 thusumbu= 1 mayirnuni
• 8 mayirnuni= 1 nuNmaNal
• 8 nuNmaNal= 1 siRu-kadugu
• 8 siRu-kadugu= 1 eL
• 8 eL= 1 nel
• 8 nel= 1 viral= 8^8 aNu(atom)= 1.9444 centimetre
• 12 viral= 1 saaN= 100 immi= 23.3333 centimetre
• 2 saaN= 1 muzham= 46.6666 centimetre
• 2 muzham= 1 kajam
• 4 muzham= 1 paagam
• 625 paagam= 1 kaadham= 5000 saaN= 1166.66 metres= 1.167 kilometre

## Likeness (Saartthal)

Likeness has attributes of tone, sound, colour and shape for comparison of a given substance with a known standard.

## Whole numbers

• 1= onRu
• 10= patthu
• 100= nooRu
• 1000= aayiram
• 10,000= pathaayiram
• 100,000= nooRaayiram
• 1000,000= meiyiram
• 10^9= thoLLunn
• 10^12= eegiyam
• 10^15= neLai
• 10^18= iLanji
• 10^20= veLLam
• 10^21= aambal

Sanskrit texts elaborate the following version:

* 1 = ONDRU -one

* 10 = PATHU -ten

* 100 = NOORU-hundred

* 1,000 = AAYIRAM-thousand

* 10,000 = PATHAAYIRAM -ten thousand

* 100,000 = LATCHAM-hundred thousand

* 1,000,000 = PATHU LATCHAM - one million

* 10,000,000 = KODI-ten million

* 100,000,000 = ARPUTHAM-hundred million

* 1,000,000,000 = NIGARPUTHAM- one billion

* 10,000,000,000 = KUMBAM-ten billion

* 100,000,000,000 = KANAM-hundred billion

* 1,000,000,000,000 = KARPAM-one trillion

* 10,000,000,000,000 = NIKARPAM -ten trillion

* 100,000,000,000,000 = PATHUMAM -hundred trillion

* 1,000,000,000,000,000 = SANGGAM -quadrillion

* 10,000,000,000,000,000 = VELLAM -ten quadrillion

* 100,000,000,000,000,000 = ANNIYAM -hundred quadrillion

* 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 = ARTTAM -quintillion

* 10,000,000,000,000,000,000 = PARARTTAM -ten quintillion

* 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 = POORIYAM -hundred quintillion

* 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = MUKKODI -sextillion

* 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = MAHAYUGAM -ten sextillion

## Fractions

• 1= onRu
• 3/4= mukkaal
• 1/2= arai
• 1/4= kaal
• 1/5= naalumaa
• 3/16= moonRu veesam
• 3/20= moonRumaa
• 1/8= araikkaal
• 1/10= irumaa
• 1/16= maakaaNi (veesam)
• 1/20= orumaa
• 3/64= mukkaal veesam
• 3/80= mukkaaN
• 1/32= araiveesam
• 1/40 araimaa
• 1/64= kaal veesam
• 1/80= kaaNi
• 3/320= araikkaaNi munthiri
• 1/160= araikkaaNi
• 1/320= munthiri
• 1/102,400= keezh munthiri
• 1/2,150,400= immi
• 1/23,654,400= mummi
• 1/165,580,800= aNu
• 1/1,490,227,200= kuNam
• 1/7,451,136,000= pantham
• 1/44,706,816,000= paagam
• 1/312,947,712,000= vintham
• 1/5,320,111,104,000= naagavintham
• 1/74,481,555,456,000= sinthai
• 1/1,489,631,109,120,000= kathirmunai
• 1/59,585,244,364,800,000= kuralvaLaippidi
• 1/3,575,114,661,888,000,000= veLLam
• 1/357,511,466,188,800,000,000= nuNNmaNl
• 1/2,323,824,530,227,200,000,000= thaertthugaL

## Currency

• 1 pal (wooden discs/sea shellots)= (approximately) 0.9 grain
• 8 (or 10 base 8 ) paRkaL =1 senkaaNi (copper/bronze) = 7.2 grains(misinterpretted by Roman accounts as 10 base 10 paRkal =9 grains)
• 1/4 senkaaNi =1 kaalkaaNi (copper) =1.8 grains(misinterpretted by Roman accounts as 2.25 grains)
• 64 (or 100 base 8 ) paRkaL = 1 KaaNap-pon a.k.a. Kaasu panam(gold) = 57.6 grains
• 1 Roman dinarium was traded on par with 2 KaaNappon plus 1 SenkaaNi(=124 grains).
• 18 Ana = 2.5 Rupee, 16 Ana = 1 Rupee, 1 Ana = 3 Thuttu, 1/4 Ana = 3/4 (mukkal) thuttu